CPR - Adult 

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation 30:2 
CPR - 30 compressions : 2 rescue breaths 
 
The information below is no replacement for attending a first aid course where you will have the opportunity to practice your skills under the guidance of one of our qualified and experienced first aid instructors. 
 
If you are untrained, unwilling, or unable to perform rescue breaths then compression only CPR may be administered. 
 
1. Complete the Primary Survey 
 
D - Danger 
R - Response 
A - Airway 
Identify and treat any life-threatening airway conditions (such as choking or suffocation) 
If the casualty is unconscious, tilt the head back and lift the chin to open the airway 
When the airway is clear/open, continue to breathing 
 
B - Breathing 
Identify and treat any life threatening breathing problems (such as Asthma) 
If the casualty is unconscious and not breathing normally, perform CPR 
 
2. Call 999 as soon as possible, or get someone else to do it. 
 
3. Perform CPR 
Kneel by the side of the casualty with the heel of one hand in the centre of the casualtys chest. 
Place the heel of your other hand on top of the first hand and interlock the fingers of your hands. 
Position yourself with you arms vertically above the casualtys chest, with your arms straight press down in the middle of the chest to a depth of 5-6cm. 
After each compression release all of the pressure without losing contact between your hands and the sternum. 
Repeat at a rate of 100 - 120 per minute 30 times 
Administer 2 effective rescue breaths 
Continue with 30 compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths 
 
Continue with 30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths until: 
Emergency Services take over 
someone else takes over 
the casualty recovers 
you become exhausted 
 
If help is available it is recommended that you change over every 1-2 minutes. 
 
What is the chain of survival? 
When someone suffers an out of hospital Cardiac arrest; if certain things happen in a certain order, their chances of survival increased. This concept is now known as the Chain of Survival. 
 
The Chain of survival is made up of four links; 
 
1. Early recognition; being able to recognise someone is in Cardiac arrest is the first step to helping them. Call 999/112 
 
2. Early CPR; by performing chest compression's and rescue breaths you can 'buy time' until a defibrillator and help arrives. 
 
3. Early defibrillation. For every minute the person doesn't have a defibrillator attached to their chest, their chances of survival reduce by 10%. 
 
4. Early advanced care. This is delivered by the paramedics who arrive shortly after. If you start CPR within 2 minutes, place a defibrillator on their chest in four minutes and a paramedic arrives in 8, they have a 40% chance of survival.